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Obesity and eating disorders, like drug addiction, have been proposed to be chronic relapsing conditions with alternating periods of abstinence and relapse from highly palatable foods that continue despite negative consequences. Excessive lever responses within 2 s after the initial response had no consequences and were recorded as cluster responses. Once stable FR1 operant responding for the electrical stimulus was established, ICSS thresholds were assessed using the following procedure. The threshold for each session was calculated as the mean of the last four column thresholds; the first and second column thresholds were, therefore, excluded. Given the length of the diet alternation 7 weeks , animals were tested only once a week to avoid the loss of the electrode implant. Rats were trained to lever press on a fixed ratio FR 1 schedule of reinforcement to obtain ms trains of electrical stimulation. These results validate the hypothesis that withdrawal from highly palatable food is responsible for the emergence of depressive-like behavior, and they also show that compulsive eating relieves the withdrawal-induced negative emotional state. Briefly, after acclimation, rats were divided into two groups matched for food intake, body weight, and feed efficiency from the previous 3—4 days. No changes were observed in the intracranial self-stimulation threshold procedure. All the behavioral tests were performed in rats that had been diet-cycled for at least 7 weeks. At this depth, rats are unable to support themselves by standing Wieland and Lucki, ; Detke et al. An increase in the reward threshold indicated that stimulus intensities that were previously perceived as reinforcing were no longer perceived as rewarding, reflecting a decrease in reward function and suggesting a depressive-like state. Following threshold stabilization, rats underwent diet cycling. If no response occurred, this time period began at the end of the 7. The positions of the sucrose and water bottles were alternated every day to prevent place preference. To discourage the subject from responding during the inter-trial interval, any response during this period postponed the onset of the S1 for an additional
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Excessive lever responses within 2 s after the initial response had no consequences and were recorded as cluster responses. At the beginning of each trial, rats received a noncontingent stimulus S1 , after which they had the opportunity, during a 7. The water was changed between subjects.
After recovery from surgery, rats were trained daily in the ICSS procedure 2 h after diet switch. Similarly, it has been proposed that compulsive eating may result as a form of self-medication to alleviate the negative emotional state associated with withdrawal from highly palatable foods Cottone et al. Following threshold stabilization, rats underwent diet cycling.